Tuesday, August 21, 2018

During Apartheid Era Swaziland Lobbied US and UK Not to Support Sanctions on South Africa


During the height of the Apartheid era, Swaziland lobbied the US and UK Governments not to support economic sanctions on South Africa, a confidential communication from 1978 has revealed.

The then Swazi Prime Minister Maphevu Harry Dlamini said the sanctions would be ‘disastrous’ for the Swaziland economy.

At about the same time Swaziland under King Sobhuza II supported the white-ruled Apartheid government in South Africa because he was afraid that change there would encourage people to press for political reform in his own kingdom, a separate secret CIA document from 1978 revealed. 

The information contradicts the present-day belief that King Sobhuza II and his Swazi Governments were stanch supporters of the struggle for freedom in South Africa during the Apartheid era.

Dlamini was said to have ‘pleaded strongly’ with the US and UK not to support sanctions.

This was revealed in a confidential electronic telegram sent from the United States State Department on 7 November 1978. It was distributed to the UK, Zambia, Mozambique and France.

The electronic telegram said, ‘During 30-minute meeting in his office November 2, Prime Minister pleaded strongly with UK and US reps to urge our governments to prevent adoption of UN sanctions against South Africa, especially on oil, on ground that sanctions would be not only suicidal for Swaziland but also extremely detrimental to blacks.’

The writer of the cable, who was not named, but was likely to be the US Ambassador to Swaziland said the US and UK representatives at the meeting agreed to seek clarification of positions from their governments ‘soonest’.

The confidential message added, ‘In unprecedented move, Prime Minister Maphevu summoned British High Commissioner and me jointly to his office November 2 for urgent approach on issue of UN sanctions against South Africa. 

‘Prime Minister said that from series of telexes and telecons from Swazi UN representative Malinga, he understood that United Nations was on brink of voting on sanctions issue and that Western powers, possibly reflecting disenchantment with South Africa’s posture on Namibian election question, were leaving impression in New York that they might not repeat not veto a sanctions resolution. 

‘Although worried about effect that any kind of sanctions would have on Swaziland’s economy, Prime Minister was principally concerned about oil sanctions. 

‘Prime Minister said he did not have to remind UK and US reps in Mbabane, who saw situation first-hand, how dependent Swaziland economy is on South African economy. 

‘Oil sanctions would be “disastrous” for Swaziland. 

‘He added that one could be sure that not only Swaziland’s population, but also blacks in South Africa itself, would be the first to feel the pinch if sanctions were imposed; he gave the example of black entrepreneurs in South Africa, who he said would certainly be treated far less favorably by South African authorities when rationing began. 

‘Several times in his forceful half-hour presentation the Prime Minister talked as spokesman for blacks in all of Southern Africa and not merely for Swazis. 

‘He said sanctions would be “indirect killing of black people in Southern Africa”.

‘For Swaziland to vote for sanctions would be “suicidal.”

‘Prime Minister asked rhetorically which black leaders in South Africa itself would support sanctions. He hoped that Western policy-makers were not taking advice from “blacks who left South Africa ten to twenty years ago and who are now living comfortably in Europe and America.”

‘He downplayed any hard-line advice that might be given by front-line leaders, who continue their own economic dealings with South Africa (as Swaziland does) because there is no alternative to such cooperation; he cited Zambian railroad move as one recent example.’

Maphevu Harry Dlamini was Prime Minister of Swaziland from 31 March 1976 until his death on 25 October 1979.

The telegram was classified confidential when it was written in 1978, and has since been declassified. It is now publicly available through the Wikileaks’ Public Library of US Diplomacy

A separate secret CIA document (also since declassified) from 1978 called Africa Review, dated 1 December 1978 said South Africa had ‘equipped the Swazi Army with light infantry weapons’.

The report said the ‘traditionalist’ Swaziland government, ‘believes it is threatened in the same way white South Africans are, namely by a host of outside forces seeking the destruction of a social and political order that has served to protect the interests of the ruling elite.

‘Since independence [10 years earlier in 1968] the Swazi Government has sought to suppress any signs of change that could lead to pressure for reforming the country’s political and social institutions. Consequently, close relations with South Africa are probably viewed as protection against Communist and radical change.’

See also

Secret CIA Report Reveals Swaziland King Sobhuza’s Support For Apartheid South Africa

Monday, August 20, 2018

Secret CIA Report Reveals Swaziland King Sobhuza’s Support For Apartheid South Africa

Swaziland under King Sobhuza II supported the white-ruled Apartheid government in South Africa because he was afraid that change there would encourage people to press for political reform in his own kingdom, a secret CIA document from 1978 reveals.


King Sobhuza ruled Swaziland as an absolute monarch after he dissolved parliament in 1973 and had faced many calls for change. The information in the document contradicts the present-day belief that King Sobhuza and his backers were stanch supporters of the struggle for freedom in South Africa during the Apartheid era.


The United States Central Intelligence Agency in a report called Africa Review and marked ‘Secret’, dated 1 December 1978 said South Africa had ‘equipped the Swazi Army with light infantry weapons’.

The report said the ‘traditionalist’ Swaziland government, ‘believes it is threatened in the same way white South Africans are, namely by a host of outside forces seeking the destruction of a social and political order that has served to protect the interests of the ruling elite.

‘Since independence [10 years earlier in 1968] the Swazi Government has sought to suppress any signs of change that could lead to pressure for reforming the country’s political and social institutions. Consequently, close relations with South Africa are probably viewed as protection against Communist and radical change.’

The secret CIA report that has since been declassified added Swaziland had strong economic ties with South Africa and was ‘motivated to maintain good relations with Pretoria’.


It added, ‘As a result, Swaziland has made little effort to disassociate itself from Pretoria and has indeed strengthened economic ties with South Africa. The government apparently also maintains a covert and close relationship with the South African police that appears to extend beyond cooperation in criminal matters to intelligence matters of mutual concern.

‘In addition, South Africa has equipped the Swazi Army with light infantry weapons.’

The CIA report said that one way Swaziland had shown its support for the racist white-run Apartheid regime in South Africa was to cut its links with FIFA, the international footballing body, in protest at South Africa’s expulsion from the organisation. 

The CIA report said, ‘A Swazi official stated that “we cannot afford to boycott South Africa or participate in any sanctions.” He added, “I don’t see why we should deny a black man in South Africa the freedom of association with other black sportsmen.”.

The report said that it was unlikely that the situation would change after King Sobhuza died as, ‘his successor would be confronted with the same geopolitical realities’.

The CIA report said that Swaziland was ‘beginning to become involved, albeit very reluctantly, in the liberation effort against its white neighbour. There is some evidence that Swaziland is being used increasingly by South African nationalist movements for the infiltration of arms and insurgents into South Africa.

‘Swaziland is also being used more frequently as an escape route for black South African dissidents and refugees. Such activists are carefully monitored, however, and the Swazis are not allowed to become involved.

‘In early 1978 several Pan Africanist Congress leaders were detained and later expelled for their involvement in cross-border operations.’

 See also

During Apartheid Era Swaziland Lobbied US and UK Not to Support Sanctions on South Africa
 
The Day Democracy Died in Swaziland